Sri Ramanuja's life

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Srimathe Ramanujaya Namah:



Sri Ramanuja (1017 - 1137 CE), the most important philosopher-saint of Sri Vaishnavam and one of the most dynamic characters of Hinduism. He was a philosophical as well as a social reformer, displaying a catholicity that was nearly unparalleled in Hindu religious history before him. He revitalised Indian philosophy and popular religion so much that nearly every aspect of Hinduism has been influenced by his work. His life and works show a truly unique personality, combining contemplativ e insight, logical acumen, catholicity, charismatic energy, and selfless dedication to God. 

The less known fact even among Srivaishnavas about this well known Acharya by  whose name Srivaishnava philosophy is called  'Ramanuja Darsanam' and who is  hailed as "Sri Vaishnava Siddhanta Nirdhaarana Saarva bouma" is that he was a  'Vadama' by birth.(Authority :"  Periya Thrumudi Adaivu, Pazhanadai Vilakkam and  Visishtaadvaita Catechism" - quoted in GLE) 


Ilaya Perumal was born to Kesava Perumal Somayaji Dikhsitar and Kanthimathi  Ammal at Sriperumpudur.  Just as Sage Vasishta on seeing the brilliance in the  face of the child named him as Lakshmana saying "Lakshmano Lakshmi Sampannaha",  Periya Thiru malai Nambi struck by the Tejas of the child, named him after  Lakshmana as Ilaya Perumal.  (PPM) aka Ilayalwar. 

There is a sloka in Yadhavaachala Mahatmyam which says: 

Ananthah Prathamam Roopam Lakshmanascha Tathah Parah | 
Balabadram Thritheeyasthu Kalou Kaschit Bhavishyathi || 

(meaning) It is the same who was Adhisesha first, Lakshmana after and Balarama  in the third who is born as Sri Ramanuja in the Kali yuga.  This Kaschit is  taken by our Poorva Acharyas as referring to Ramanuja (PPM) 


His date of birth is placed differently by different authorities.As per PPM, he  was born in Kaliyuga year 4119 which corresponds to1017 AD.  PPM fixes even the  exact date as 13th April 1017 AD, interms of English Calendar. 

PRA, though notes the year as 4118 Kali , maintains the year as 1017 AD only and  gives additional information that the Rasi was Karkataka and the time of birth  was exactly at noon. 

VAC, MKS and MSR also agree on the year 1017.  PTA gives a few more details like  the Yogam being Ayushman, Karanam being Bhadra, Gotra being Harita, Saakha being  Yajus, Sutra being Apasthambha and Sect being Vadama ( Vide p.45 of GLE). 

PPM and ATA mention the year as Pingala, month Chitrai and the constellation  Tiruvadirai.  PPM adds that it was a Sukla Paksha Panchami, a Friday. 

It will be for the Research minded scholars to piece together all these details  to arrive at the correct date, time etc. 

Vriddha Padma Purana presages his incarnation thus:- 

" Long, long afterwards, the Lord himself will come down on earth as a Tridanda  Sannyasin, to restore the good law.  At that time heretics and men of perverted  intellects will confuse the minds of the people.  Aasuric Saastraas, based upon  fallacious arguments and various schools of thought, very attractive and almost  indistinguishable from the Vedanta, will turn away mens' hearts from Vishnu and  cause them to forget His glory.  That glorious incarnation will, through the  good fortune of the Lord's devotees, come down upon earth, to explain and  amplify the teachings of the great Sage Baadaraayana and the divine singer of  the Gita.  The holy one would compose a Bhaashya on the Vyaasa Sutras, to save  men from the confusion and despair caused by spurious doctrines and lead them to  the True faith" ( Vide p.44 of GLE) 

While still a boy , he lost his father and was living with his mother at  Kanchipuram under the protection of one 'Tiruk kachi Nambi' This Nambi was  believed to converse and was on 'speaking terms' with Lord Varadaraja in the  Archa form. 


(1) Within 16 years of age, he had mastered all the Vedas and Sastras.  At age  17, he married Rakshakaambaal ( Tanjammal, in Tamil) (PPM) 

(2) Ilaya Perumal was placed under the Advaitic Sannyasi called YADAVA PRAKASA  at Tirupput kuzhi for training in Advaita Purva Paksha Sastra of Vedanta.  Once  during this period, Alavandar who desired nominating Ilaya Perumal to succeed  himself visited Tirupput kuzhi, met with him but had no opportunity to speak to  him and had to return to Srirangam. 

Very many occasions arose when the Saivite Guru clashed with Ilaya Perumal when  the Guru misinterpreted Vedantic statements.  Ilaya Perumal fearlessly pointed  out the errors in the Guru's interpretations and corrected him.  This enraged  the Guru.  Fearing that one day, Ilaya Perumal would demolish Advaita  philosophy, he plotted to kill Ilaya Perumal by drowning him in Ganga while on a  pilgrimage tour of the country with his disciples. 

Learning of the design through one Govinda, another disciple who was also  related to him, Ilaya Perumal slipped out into the forest at dead of night.  Miraculously, an aged hunter couple appeared and guided him.  As Ilaya Perumal  who was in a trance, opened his eyes, he found himself at the outskirts of  Kanchipuram and the couple had disappeared.  He realized that it was Lord  Varadaraja and Perundevi Thayar who had come in the guise of the hunter couple.  He stayed at Kanchi for a while to assist Tiruk Kachi Nambi in his daily chores  of service to Lord Varadaraja. 

(3) News came that Alavandar was very sick and he desired to meet with Ilaya  Perumal.  Just as Tirukkachi Nambi and Alavandar arrived, they saw the funeral  procession of Alavandar.  During the last rites, they noticed that three fingers  of Alavandar remained folded signifying three of his last unfulfilled wishes.  As Ilaya Perumal swore 

( i ) that he would write a commentary on Veda Vyasa's Brahma Sutra  ( ii ) that he would perpetuate the memory of Vyasa and Parasara and  ( iii ) that he would strive to propagate Visishtadvaita on the lines of the  4000 holy collects of Alwars, the fingers unfolded one by one automatically and  stretched out to normal position signifying that these were his last wishes.  Since he could not meet with Alavandar, he returned to Kanchi without even going  into the temple at Srirangam (PPM) 

(4) Tirukkachi Nambi obtained from Lord Varadaraja the famous ' Six Words ' and  passed them on to Ilayalwar.  The six words provided the guidelines for  Ilayalwar to follow.  They were:- 

( i ) that Lord Narayana is the Paramatma.  (ii ) that the individual souls were different from Paramatma.  (iii) that Prapatti is the means to attain salvation.  (iv)  that the last remembrance of the Lord on the part of the departing        soul was not necessary.  (v)   that Moksha can be obtained only on laying off the mortal coils        (Videha Mukti) &  (vi)  that Ilaya Perumal should take refuge at the feet of Periya Nambi. 

Accordingly, he met with Periya Nambi at Madurantakam , where under the shade of  Vakula tree Periya Nambi performed Pancha Samskara to him.  As he was initiated  into the esoteric of Dvaya Mantra at Madurantakam, the place came to be known as  "Dvayam Vilaindha Tiruppathi" (PPM) Both returned to Srirangam and did  Kalakshepams on Brahma Sutra etc.  for sometime.  It was at this time that Lord  Ranganatha called him "Nammudaiyavar" (He is ours).(PPM)   

(5) Ilaya Perumals was not a happy married life.  His wife never understood  either his greatness nor appreciated his catholicity and always acted on her own  wavelength and there was no compatibility as between them.  Several instances  are cited wherein the lady ensconced in her own in her own pet ideas of being  holy or otherwise showed scant respect to Bhagavatas and this greatly annoyed  Ilayalwar.  When he was about 30 years of age, Ilayalwar took Sannyas with the  name of 'Ramanuja Muni'.  He was the king among Sannyasis.  Hence, he is called  ' Yati Rajar'- a honorific invested by Lord Devaathi Rajan. 

(6) The seat of Acharya at Srirangam was lying vacant without a successor to  take over.  He was prevailed upon to assume charge.  But, before doing so, he  wanted to equip himself with the secrets of the three great Mantras.  For this  purpose, he approached one " Tiruk Koshtiyur Nambi" who made him come several  times before actually instructing him.  He cautioned Ramanuja that he should not  give out the secrets to all and sundry and if he did so, he would go to hell. 

Immediately on receiving the instructions, Ramanuja climbed up to the top of the  steeple of the temple and proclaimed to the large gathering of his disciples  assembled there the purport of the instruction. 

The popular belief that he gave out the Mantras is not correct; What he actually  gave out was that he had found out the way to attain Moksha through the three  great Mantras and invited those who sincerely wished to follow him and get  initiated.  Also, he did not advise all and sundry as assumed by some.  By the  time of this episode, he had already gathered a huge following of disciples who  congregated at the main entrance to the temple and he was thus addressing his  own disciples (as explained in a separate posting in this series).  This is  another less known fact about the well known Acharya Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi was so  enraged and demanded an explanation.  Ramanuja replied that he did not give out  the secrets and even if he had transgressed the specific warning of the Guru,  only he himself would go to hell but the multitude of humanity that listened to  his clarion ' wake - up' call would be saved spiritually.  The Guru was  overwhelmed by this reply .  Embracing Ramanuja appreciating his broad  mindedness, he called him 'Emperumanar'- " O!  My lord" and declared that  Srivaishnavism would thenceforward be known as " Ramanuja Darsanam"- ' the light  of Ramanuja' 

(7) Yadava prakasa, his old Guru had by then returned to Kanchi, became  Ramanuja's disciple assuming the name of 'Govinda Yogi' 

(8) Ramanuja used to go round the streets for his Biksha.  An evil minded fellow  had mixed poison in the biksha.  His wife while serving the biksha fell at  Ramanujas feet with tears in her eyes.  Ramanuja understood that there was  something wrong.  When the Sishyas sorted out the biksha for cooking, they found  out that poison was mixed with it.  Ramanuja went on a fast with a view to  cleanse the mind of the evil-doer.  On hearing this, Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi rushed  all the way to Srirangam.  When Ramanuja heard of the coming of his Guru, he  rushed to the banks of River Kaveri to receive him.  It was the height of  summer.  Ramanuja ran towards him in the hot Sun to receive him and fell at his  feet on the burning sands on the banks of river Kaveri.  Nambi did not ask him  to get up.  Such was his Acharya Bhakti.  At that time , Kidambi Aachaan, who  was nearby told Nambi " Your action (in not asking Ramanuja to get up) is worse  than the poison mixed in the bikshai".  Such was the Acharya bhakti of Ramanujas  Sishya !(Like master, like pupil !).  Tirukkoshtiyur Nambi exclaimed, " After  all, now I can cast off my physical body since I have found one who would take  the greatest care of Ramanuja

(9) Ramanuja traveled throughout the country spreading the message of  Visishtadvaita.  Once a votary of the ' illusion theory' Yagna Murthi by name  confronted him for 16 days in endless arguments and counter arguments.  Finally,  he accepted defeat and became a disciple of Ramanuja assuming the name of  'Arulala Perumal Emperumanar' and wrote 'Gnana Saram and Prameya Saram'. 

(10) One of the most important disciples who was totally devoted to Ramanuja was  Kuresan also known as ' Kurattalwan'.  Once, Kuresan participated in the shradda  ceremony performed for his mother by the famous Tiruvarangathu Amudanar.  This  Amudanar was in charge of the Srirangam temple.  When Amudanar inquired what  Kuresan desired as reward for his participation, Kuresan replied that the  administration of the temple should be handed over to Ramanuja.  Amudanar, who  had already known the greatness of Ramanuja was only too glad to hand over the  key to Ramanuja.  It is this Tiruvarangattu Amudanar who subsequently wrote the  Ramanuja Noorrantadhi of 108 verses which was included in the holy collects to  make up the total of 4,000. 

(11) After Mastering the Bodhaayana Vritti of Sage Vyaasa, he wrote several  works like Vedanta Sangraham explaining the various viewpoints of Sankara,  Yadhava, Bhaskara and others, Vedanta Deepam, Geetha Bashyam etc. 

(12) During Panguni Uttram, he did Prapatti before the Divya Dhampathi in Serthi  and submitted his famous Gadhyatrayam (comprising Saranagathi Gadhyam, Sriranga  Gadhyam and Sri Vaikunta Gadhyam ), 

(13) Later, he wrote a Grantha called Nityam detailing the Tiruvaradhana Kramam 

(14) While he was on his Sancharam, it is believed that the Lord himself  appeared before him at Tiruk Kurum Kudi as a Srivaishnava got Samasrayanam from  Udaiyavar (PPM) 

(15) When he visited Saraswati Peetam, Goddess Saraswati was so impressed with  his commentary on Brahma Sutram that she named it "Sri Bhashyam" and conferred  on him the title of "Bhashyakaarar".  It must be noted that while the other  commentaries are known by the names of their authors like 'Sankara Bashyam'  written by Aadhi Sankara, the commentary of Ramanuja is always referred to with  the venerable honorific 'Sri' denoting its unsurpassed quality and clarity and  known as ' Sri Bashyam' (PPM) 

(16) When he visited Tirumala, a miracle happened.  Some argued that the Lord of  Tirumalai was Saiva param.  It is surprising that such a claim should have  arisen about the Lord who had been worshipped as Lord Vishnu by all the Alwars  and Acharyas besides Elango Adigal and other Tamil Pulavars for several  centuries.  This was because the Lord had earlier entrusted His insignia to a  King called Tondamaan.  (SAA p.57-58).  The Lord desired to take back from  Tondamaan, these insignia viz., Sankhu, Tiruvaazhi, Soolam, Damarukam etc.  They  were placed in the Sannidhi the previous night.  And, when the doors were opened  the next morning, the Lord gave Darshan adorning all his insignia (PPM).  Ramanuja was hailed as " Appanukku Sangaazhi Alittha Perumaal" Poet Arunagiri  himself sang clearing all doubts in this regard saying "Ulageenra Pachai  umaiyanan, Vada Venkadathil Uraibhavan, Uyar Sanga Chakra kara Thalan

(17) Ramanuja "was the greatest synoptic thinker which the world ever produced  to systematize Visishtadvaitic philosophy, faithfully interpreting the ancient  knowledge in tune with the letter and spirit of the text in the light of  revelation and experience tested by stern logic"- [- Hon'ble Justice  K.S.Krishnaswami Iyengar of the High Court of Judicture, Madras in his foreword  to Desika Prabahandam( P.31) published by Lifco Associates, Madras- 3rd Edition,  1982.  ] 

(18) His magnum opus is his wonderful commentary on Vedavyasa's Brahma Sutram  and a simpler commentary thereon called Vedanta Saram.  Kuresan was very helpful  in publishing his works.  Thus, he fulfilled his FIRST PROMISE to Alavandar.  It  is this Kuresan (aka) Sri Vatsanka Misra who wrote the famous Pancha Sthava  consisting of Athi Maanusha Sthava, Sri Sthava, Varadaraja Sthava, Vaikunta  Sthava and Sundarabaahu Sthava. 

(19) He asked Kuresan to name his two sons after Veda Vyasa and Parasara and  thus fulfilled his SECOND PROMISE to Alavandar.  It was this Parasara Bhattar  who subsequently wrote the famous commentary on Vishnu Sahasra Nama as ordained  by Ramanuja. 

(20) Another disciple of Ramanuja was Pillaan.  Once, when Ramanuja was alone  mentally reciting a particular hymn of Tiruvoimozhi, Pillaan entered his room  and inquired if he was meditating on a particular hymn.  And, it was indeed the  one Ramanuja was actually meditating on!.  Ramanuja decided that Pillaan was the  person best suited to write a commentary on Tiruvoimozhi.  As ordered, he wrote  the famous 'AARAAYIRAPPADI' (the commentary known as the 6000 Padi also known as  Bhagavad Vishayam) and called Pillaan as 'Tirukkurugai Piraan" after the name of  Nammalwar.  He was also known as Kurugesar and Braathru Thozhappar.  Thus, he  fulfilled his THIRD PROMISE to Alavandar.  He was one of the Sri Bhashya ubhaya  Simhasana Adhipathis.(PPM) 

(21) Kulothunga Chola was a staunch devotee of Siva.  He commanded Ramanuja to  come to his court with a view to enlisting his support to establish the  superiority of Siva over all other deities.  (including Vishnu ).  If the  support was not forthcoming, the king was planning to kill Ramanuja.  Sensing  the danger, Kuresa went to the court disguised as Ramanuja along with another  disciple called Periya Nambi.  The king ordered him to sign a document to the  effect that 'Siva is the greatest'.  Kuresa added that ' Sivam was no doubt  great but Dronam was greater than Sivam'- both expressions referring to units of  measurement.  The enraged king ordered both of them to be blinded when he came  to know that he was Kuresa who was impersonating Ramanuja.  Periya Nambi was  tortured to death while Kuresa survived.  Kuresa, though he himself was blinded,  was happy that he had saved Ramanuja.  It is this Kulothunga who is reported to  have thrown away the idol of Govindaraja in the sea.  Ramanuja recovered it and  had it installed at Tirupati. 

(22) While on an itinerary, Ramanuja noticed an officer of state, by name Danur  daasa, a hunter by birth was over -concerned and over- protective about the  beauty of his wife who was walking along on the hot sands on the banks of the  river Kaveri.  Ramanuja offered to show him something more beautiful than his  wife and took him to the proximity of the image of Lord Ranganatha.  Danur daasa  was enraptured by the charm of the Lord and became a disciple of Ramanuja  assuming the name of ' Uranga Villi Daasar'.  Ramanuja never entertained any  caste distinctions and was conferring his benedictions even on the lowliest of  the lowly whom he called 'Tiruk Kulattar'. 

(23) Ramanuja went to Tiru narayana puram in search of white clay paste used for  applying caste marks by Vaishnavites.  The idol of the temple there had been  taken away by the muslim invaders and was being used at play as a doll by the  muslim princess in Delhi.  Ramanuja went to Delhi and when he endearingly called  ' Come on!  My dear child 'Selva Pillaiye Vaarum', the idol miraculously came  onto his lap.  Ramanuja reinstalled it in the temple. 

(24) Once some kids were playing on the road pretending to construct a temple,  installing an idol of the Lord, offering fruits and flowers etc all the time  using the dust on the road for the purpose.  They offered some mud as prasadam  to Ramanuja who was passing along , he received it with due respect.  He  remembered in this connection the words of Poigai Alwar who said that the Lord  took whatever name and form his sincere devotees wished and in the instant case  though the kids were only playing, they sincerely believed in what they were  doing. 

(25) Another disciple of Ramanuja was Vaduga Nambi who put the sandals of his  Guru along with those of the Lord.  When questioned, he replied that the  Acharya's sandals were for him as holy as those of the Lord.  When Lord  Ranganatha was coming on his rounds on the streets of Srirangam, Vaduga Nambi  remarked that the eyes that had seen the charm in the eyes of Ramanuja would not  be able to appreciate the beauty of the eyes of even the Lord.-'En Amudinai  Kanda Kangal Marronrinai Kaanaave.'  Such was his devotion to his Acharya. 

(26) Ramanuja arranged to make a lifelike idol of himself and embracing it  invested it with his powers and had it installed in Tirumalai at Tirupati.  The  only temple consecrated in Tirumalai , other than that of Lord Venkateswara, is  that of Ramanuja.(SAA p.58) The Archa moorthi of Ramanuja known as "Thaan  Ugantha Tirumeni" was installed in Tirunarayanapuram. 

(27) Once, when he visited Tondanoor in Hoysala State, he happened to meet a  Jain king called Devarayan.  His daughter was possessed by a demon and none  could get rid of her predicament.  When Ramanuja's SriPaada Theertham ( water  consecrated by association with his feet) was sprinkled on her,she was cured of  the devil.  The King pleaded to be accepted as Ramanujas Sishya.  Ramanuja  accepted and named him "Vishnu Vardhana". 

(28) Ramanuja nominated 74 Acharyas to succeed him.  It is he who instituted the  13 day "iyal Goshti in Srirangam.  (PPM) 


With his head on the lap of Embar and his feet on the lap of Vaduga Nambi,  Ramanuja breathed his last in 1137 AD listening to the recitation of the Divya  Prabandam. 

Born in PINGALA year, he left for his heavenly abode also in PINGALA year that  followed 120 years from the year of his Avatara.  Thus, he lived TWO full cycles  of Tamil years after his birth 

PLV places the date in Saaka era 1009, Pingala, in the month of Magha, the 10 th  day of Sukla Paksha under the constellation of Tiruvadirai and at noon ( as in  the time of his birth). 

TKG notes that Lord Ranganatha and Periya Piraatti bathed and purified  themselves as relatives do. 

PRA avers that he died on a Saturday 

VAC places the date as 4238 Kali yuga which corresponds to 1137 AD. 

PTA, however, states that he lived for 128 years and died in the year Durmati in  the month of Vaisaka. 

Again, Research scholars may fin ways to piece together all these information to  arrive at the correct date. 

His physical body is preserved even today in a sitting posture in the Sannidhi  (Sanctum Sanctorum) dedicated to him on the southwest corner on the fifth round  within the Srirangam temple as ordered by Lord Ranganatha himself. 

The whole world is aghast at the feat of preservation of the mummies of Egypt  and the body of St.  .Xavier in Goa in India and make so much fuss about them. 

Even some Srivaishnavas are not aware that here in Srirangam.  their holiest  place hailed as ' Bhuloka Vaikuntam' ( Heaven on Earth) lies preserved the body  of Sri Ramanuja in all its pristine state unostentatiously, without any fanfare  or publicity and without using any of the chemical preservatives employed by the  Egyptian and Goan models. 

Swami Desika in Sloka 10 of his Yathiraja Saptadhi pays obeisance to Bhagavad  Ramanuja thus before proceeding with his eulogy. 

Pranaamam Lakshmana Munih Prathi Grihnaathu Maamakam | 
Prasaadhayathi yat Sookthih Svadheena Pathikaam Sruthim || 

(meaning) I beseech Sri Ramanuja whose Srisookthis claimed the acclaim of the  Lord and adorned the Upanishads to kindly accept my Pranams.  There is another  famous Sloka which says :- 

Thasmai Ramaanujaaryaaya Namah Parama Yoginae | 
Yah Sruthi Smrithi Sutraanaam Antharjvaramaso Samathaa || 

(meaning) I bow to that Sri Ramanuja, the great Yogi who became the very soul of  Vedas, Upanishads and other Sutras. 


(1) "Acharya Vamsa Vriksha Chart" issued by Desika Darsana Sabha, New Delhi  and released by Sri Uttamur Swami Centenary Celebration Committee (AVV) 

(2) "Srirangam Srimad Andavan of Poundarikapuram Asramam Tanians" compiled  by Kampavayal Vangipuram Sri J. Raghavachariar and released by Sri  Paravakkottai Srimad Andavan, Sri Gopal Desika Maha Desikan (PPT) 

(3) " Sri Vaishnava Acharya Parampara"- A special manuscript in the  handwriting of Sri Paravakkotai Srimad Andavan, Sri Dopala Desika Maha  Desikan- containing details from Prathama Acharya to Tirutturaippoondi  Ramanuja Maha Desikan of Poundarika puram Asramam. (PPM) 

(4) "Veda Malar"- Souvenir issued during the Centenary Celebration of  Vennatrankarai Srimad Andavan, Sri Srinivasa Maha Desikan- containing  details from Swami Vedanta Desikan to Paravakkottai Swami (VM) 

(5) " Aniyarangan Tirumutrathu Adiyargal" published by Sri Visishtadvaita  Research Center, Madras, 1993 (ATA) 

(6) " Sri Ranganatha Paduka"- March 1993 issue containing details from  Srimad Vazhuttur Andavan to Prakritam Srimushnam Swami of Periyasramam (SRP) 

(7) " Guide to Srivaishnavas" by Srirangam Siromani M.S.Rajagopalachariar  and published by Sri Visishtadvaita Pracharini Sabha, Madras. (MSR) 

(8) " Peeps into Mysticism" by D. Ramaswamy Iyengar and published by Sri  Visishtadvaita Pracharini Sabha, Madras,1986(DR) 

(9) " Golden lives of the East" by Sri V.R.Srinivasa Iyengar published by P.  Venkateswara & CO, Madras.(GLE) 

(10) " Vaishnava Vinaa Vidai" by Karappankadu Venkatachariar Swami and  published by Tamilnadu Deiveega Peravai, Madras18, 1970.(VVV) 

(11) "Sri Vaishnavam" by Sri V.N.Gopala Desikan published by Tiruppavai  Committee, Kumbakonam,1994 (SVG) 

(12) "A dialogue on Hinduism" by Sri V.N.Gopala Desikan published by Sri  Visihtadvaita Research Center, Madras,1990 (DH-G) 

(13) " Vaishnavism- A Concise study" by Sri M.K.Srinivasan, President,  Vedanta Desika Research Center, Madras and published by Hari Vilas  Charities, Madras,1995 (MKS) 

(14) "Acharya Vaibava Manjari" by Puttur Sri S. Krishnaswami Iyengar,  Editor, Sri Vaishnava Sudarsanam, Trichy (AVM) 

(15) " Vinodha Rasa Manjari"- monthly (VRM) 

(16) " Tenkalai Guru Parampara"- 1880 Edition- (TKP) 

(17) " Vadakalai Guru Parampara" - 1880 Edition -(VKP) 

(18) " Prapannamritam"- An old Edition (PRA) 

(19) " Visishtadvaita Catechism" - An old Edition (VAC) 

(20) "Srivaishnavam" published by Anuragam Publishers, Madras (SAN) 

(21) "Srivaishnavam" by R. Ramaswamy Ramanuja Dasar, published. by Alwargal  Amuda Nilayam, Madras.1994 (S-AAA) 

(22) " Visishtadvaitam"-do- (V-AAA) 

(23) " Pirkaala Vaishnavam" by M. Radhakrishna Pillai. Published by Alliance  & CO1987(PVA) 

(24) "Life of Alwars"- An old Edition (LOA) 

(25) "Life of Ramanujaachaarya" by Govindacharlu- An old Edition (LOR) 

(26) "Ramanujacharya's Divya Charitai"- An old Edition (RDC) 

(27) "Palanadai Vilakkam"- An old Edition (PLV) 

(28) "Periya Tirumudi Adaivu"- An old Edition (PTA) 

(29)" Hari Samaya Deepam"- An old Edition (HSD) 

(30) "Divya Suri Charitham"- An old Edition (DSC) 

(31) "Vaarthaa Maalai"- An old Edition (VAR) 

(32) "Alwargal Kaala Aaraaichi"- by Dr. M.Rajamanickanaar(AKA) 

athAto "brahma" zignAsA - Then thereafter be inquisitive to enquire about "the Absolute"