tiruppavai 19
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  kuththuvilakkeriya kko:ttukka:l kattilme:l
  methainra panchasayanaththin me:le:ri
  koththalar pu:nguzhal nappinnai kongaime:l
  vaiththukkidainda malar ma:rba: va:ythirava:y
  maiththadangannina:y ni: yun mana:lanai
  eththanai po:dum thuyilezha votta:yka:n
  eththanai ye:lum piriva:ththagilla:ya:l
  thaththuva manruththagave:lo:remba:vai


Oh, Omniscient  one  who  is  sleeping  in  the  hearts  of  the  Mumukshus,  which  are  filled with the knowledge of Arth-panchaka! Oh,  one,  who  is  lying  on  the couch of this Lila vibhuti with the four kinds of 'actions' as the four  legs  and  with  the  four  purusharthas  as  the  joints! 'please open your mouth to utter atleast a word of consolation to us' - so prayed the devotees but Krishna was keeping

 quiet and they, realizing  their  mistake,  that they had not followed the proper path  of  seeking  Him  through  His  spouse,  the  Universal Mother, began to address  Nappinnai, Oh,  Nappinnai!  (mother) who is dazzling with brillaince, due  to  Sudda  Satva guna!  you  never  allow  your  Lord  to  separate  from you, for  you  cannot  bear  the slighest amount of separation. No doubt this is not  a  fault, yet,  as  you  are  the  mediator,  it  is  not  befitting  to  both your   

'svarupa' and 'svabhava' to  hinder  us from joining the Lord. So, you must help us making your Lord join our company  so  that  our  Kainkarya nonbu may and successfully. (In this stanza, 'Kuttuvilakku' stands   for   Omniscience;   kal-  for  the  four  kinds  of  actions'  kattil- for  'Lilavibuti';  pancha- for 'Artha-panchaka'  knowledge;  sayanam- for  the  Heart  of  the  Mumukshus or God's elect; mai-for Sudda Satva;  and  kan -for  knowledge.)Here,  as it is quite essential for every Vaishnavite to have a knowlegde of Artha-panchaka or the five essential truths we shall deal with them in detail below:-


THE ARTHA PANCHAKA are as follows:-

1. The Paramatma svarupa or Isvara svarupa i.e., 'Mikka Irainilai'

2. The Jivatma svarupa i.e., 'Uyir-nilai'

3. The Upaya svarupa-the means to attain Mukti or salvation i.e., 'Takka nerigal'

4. The 'Virodhi svarupa'- the fate or sins that serve as obstacles to attain Paramatma 

     i.e., (Jivatma virodhigal).

5. Purushartha svarupa(the experience of the Paramatma) i.e., Valvinai or mukti.

The above five have been briefly referred to by Bhattar in his Tanian which is as follows:-

"Mikka virainilaiyum meyyamuyirnilaiyum

Takka neriyum tadaiyagit-tokkiyalum

Ulvinaiyum valvinaiyum odhum Kurukaiyarkon

Yalinisai vedat-tiyal."

Detailed explanation of the 'Artha-Panchaka' through the above Tanian:


I. Mika Irai Nilai:- This  deals about the svarupa of Isvara, His Paratva, which is beyond the

    range of all comprehension.

 The Following quatations will suffice to denote its meaning:-

1. Irainilai unarvaridhu (Tiruvay1-3-6)- The Lord's nature is beyond human comprehension.

2. Manidarkkut-devarpolat-devarkkum devavo(8-1-5). There is so much difference between

     Thyself and the Devas as there is difference between men and Devas.

3. Deva devanai(3-6-2)-The God of Gods.

4. Paranjothi ni paramay(3-1-3)- Thou art the Spiritual lustre. Thou art the Heavenly Being.

5. Mikum jothi(2-2-5)- The resplendent light.

6. Muluthunda paran(1-1-8)- He ate up all these completely.

7. Vanor Irai(1-5-1)- The Lord of the Devas.

8.  Periyavappanai piraman appanai uruttiranappanai.(8-1-11).

     The Great Father, Brahma's Father, and Rudra's Father.

9.  Tiruvudai-adigal(1-3-8)-Narayana with 'Sri'

10. Tirumagalar tanik-kelvan perumai yudaiya piranar(1-6-9)-He is Sriya-pathi, He is great.

11. Tirumamagal kelva! deva (6-10-6)- Thou art the consort of Sri, Oh, Lord!

12. Tirumalai alladhu deivamenretten (Mudal Tiruvantadi St.64)- I won't pray for any other 

      deity except Tirumal.

13. Tiruvillat-tevarait-terenmin devu (Nanmugan tiruvantadi St.53)- I won't accept anyone

      else as  God except Him who has Sri Lakshmi always in Him.

      This 'Irai Nilai' is also said to connote the Vyuha, Vibhava, Antaryam and the Archavatara.


II. Meyyam-Uyir-Nilai:- This  denotes that the Jivatma or the Individual Self is not independent of the Paramatma,  but  dependent on Him for its very existence. The following quatations are worth noting:

1. Uriviyanda innilaimai(Tiruvay 1-3-6)- His nature is above the material existence.

2. Enperuk  kan  nalattu on  porul (1-2-10 )- The  more  you  think of  Him, the  more  will  the  bliss of goodness increase; He is very generous to all the selfshining souls.

3. Unarvaip pera urndhu(8-8-3)- Thou tookest me up.

4. Ninra Onrai (8-8-4)- Such a one who dwelt.

5. Uyir vidudaiyan(1-2-1)-The master of the Eternal Home. 

Moreover,  the  expression  'meyyam  uyir'  signifies  the Immortality of the Individual soul. Further, it also  signifies  the  'Sarira-Sariri  bhava' i.e., the  Individual  Soul is only a body to the Universal Soul.

In   addition,  the   expression   'Uyir  nilal'  signifies  the   'svarupa'   for   the  Jivatma. viz., Servitude



1. Tam-adiyar adiyongal (Tiruvay 3-7-10) Servants of His Servants.

2. Tondan Sadagopan (7-1-11)- Sadagopa, TheServant.

3.Siru mamanisaray ennai andar(8-10-3) -The little great men have become my masters.

  This 'uyir nilai' connotes also the Nityas, Muktas, Baddhas, Kaivalyas and Mumukshus.


III.  Takka-Neri-The means to attain Salvation is none else than the lotus feet of the Lord i.e.,


Kannanallal illai kandir caran (9-1-9)-

There is no other refuge except Lord Krishna.

'Neri, also includes Karma, Gnana, Bhakti and Acharya bhimana.


IV. Tadaiyagit-tokkiyalum-ulvinaigal or Jivatma Virodhikal:- The obstacles are our sinful deeds and egoism etc. These obstacles are said to be of five kinds-svarupa-virodhi, paratva-virodhi, purusharatha-virodhi, upaya-virodhi and prapti-virodhi.

Svarupa-Virodhi:- Anti-soul or what is hostile to the soul or soul-nature.

Paratva-Virodhi:- Anti-God or What is hostile to God.

Purushartha-Virodhi:- Anti-goal or what is hostile to the Ultimate Aim.

Upaya-Virodhi:- Anti Means or what is hostile to the true Means.

Prapti -Virodhi:- Anti-gain or what is hostile to one's Ulitmate End or Ideal of Life.



1. Mun ceida mulu vinai(Tiruvay 1-4-2) The consequence of my deeds in former births.

2. Bharamaya palavinai( Amalanadhi St.5) The burden of my past deeds.

3. Poininra Gnanamum polla Olukkum aluk-kudambum (Tiruviruttam, St.1)

    Wisdom unsound, character defiled, and my body foul and

4. Ahankara mamakarankal .(1-2-3; 10-7-11) (I -ness and Mine-ness)

V. Val-vinai or Mukti:- This refers to the eternal bliss enjoyed by the Jiva.



1. Nintalinaik-kil valcchi (Tiruvay 3-2-4) live under Thy feet.

2. Valveidhi Gnalam pugala valvar(3-3-11)- They will get eternal life with eternal bliss witnessing the

    world sing their praises.

3. Avanadiyar nani-mak-kalavai inbame nalum vakyya nangatke (8-10-7)

    May we have always the precious close union of His Servants.

4. Andamil perinbat-tadiyaro-dirundhamai(10-9011) In the company of the happy servants of God.

This  'Purushartha-svarupa'  also  includes  besides  the  'Atmanubhavam' mentioned above, Dharma, Artha, Kama and Bhagavat anubhavam.

According  to  the  Acharya  Paramparai, it  is  said that this stanza befits the expression, "Sri-daraya namaha". In lines 3 and 4 it can be seen that unlike He, bearing 'Sri' on His chest, She is bearing Him on  Her  breast. Further, it  is   evident from the last four lines of this stanza that the Universal Mother may  delay  a  bit  in the act of mediation; this is done solely with the idea of testing the intensity of the self surrender made by the chetana. Note for readers:- One may observe that in this stanza and in the next (20) it  is  stated that the Lord remained caught in "the eddies of Nappinnai" viz., in her large and beautiful   eyes, her   full   and   delicate  breasts, her   red  and  cherrry  lips, and  her  slender  waist.

"Lest  the  unwary  reader fall into any misconception, it may be necessary to state that' the eddies of Nappinnai'  which  captivated  the  Lord  and  rivetted His  attention  were  in reality, not of flesh and blood. It  is  heart-rending  how much, Lord Krishna, our perfect Avatar and God of Love, has been misunderstood  and  vilified  by  ignorant  foreigners. Of  course, they  have not read our books much less, comprehended  their  meaning. How  else is it possible to conceive that they could find fault with the doings of One, whose unquestionable sanction or otherwise constitutes the sole standard of right and wrong, Well has it has been said:-

"What  pleaseth  thee  is  virtue, the  contrary  is non-virtue- distingiushing feature, none other, ever is between  the  two. The  chanting  of  Thy  love-sportings  in  Rasa-play, is hence verily deemed most purifying(by the great)




athAto "brahma" zignAsA - Then thereafter be inquisitive to enquire about "the Absolute"