'svarupa' and 'svabhava' to hinder us from joining the Lord. So, you must help us making
your Lord join our company so that our Kainkarya nonbu may and successfully. (In this stanza, 'Kuttuvilakku'
stands for Omniscience; kal- for the four kinds of
actions' kattil- for 'Lilavibuti'; pancha- for 'Artha-panchaka' knowledge; sayanam- for
the Heart of the Mumukshus or God's elect; mai-for Sudda Satva; and kan -for knowledge.)Here,
as it is quite essential for every Vaishnavite to have a knowlegde of Artha-panchaka or the five essential truths we shall
deal with them in detail below:-
THE ARTHA PANCHAKA are as follows:-
1. The Paramatma svarupa or Isvara svarupa i.e., 'Mikka Irainilai'
2. The Jivatma svarupa i.e., 'Uyir-nilai'
3. The Upaya svarupa-the means to attain Mukti or salvation i.e., 'Takka nerigal'
4. The 'Virodhi svarupa'- the fate or sins that serve as obstacles to attain Paramatma
i.e., (Jivatma virodhigal).
5. Purushartha svarupa(the experience of the Paramatma) i.e., Valvinai or mukti.
The above five have been briefly referred to by Bhattar in his Tanian which is as follows:-
"Mikka virainilaiyum meyyamuyirnilaiyum
Takka neriyum tadaiyagit-tokkiyalum
Ulvinaiyum valvinaiyum odhum Kurukaiyarkon
Detailed explanation of the 'Artha-Panchaka' through the above Tanian:
I. Mika Irai Nilai:- This deals about the svarupa of Isvara, His Paratva, which is beyond the
range of all comprehension.
The Following quatations will suffice to denote its meaning:-
1. Irainilai unarvaridhu (Tiruvay1-3-6)- The Lord's nature is beyond human comprehension.
2. Manidarkkut-devarpolat-devarkkum devavo(8-1-5). There is so much difference between
Thyself and the Devas as there is difference between men and Devas.
3. Deva devanai(3-6-2)-The God of Gods.
4. Paranjothi ni paramay(3-1-3)- Thou art the Spiritual lustre. Thou art the Heavenly Being.
5. Mikum jothi(2-2-5)- The resplendent light.
6. Muluthunda paran(1-1-8)- He ate up all these completely.
7. Vanor Irai(1-5-1)- The Lord of the Devas.
8. Periyavappanai piraman appanai uruttiranappanai.(8-1-11).
The Great Father, Brahma's Father, and Rudra's Father.
9. Tiruvudai-adigal(1-3-8)-Narayana with 'Sri'
10. Tirumagalar tanik-kelvan perumai yudaiya piranar(1-6-9)-He is Sriya-pathi, He is great.
11. Tirumamagal kelva! deva (6-10-6)- Thou art the consort of Sri, Oh, Lord!
12. Tirumalai alladhu deivamenretten (Mudal Tiruvantadi St.64)- I won't pray for any other
deity except Tirumal.
13. Tiruvillat-tevarait-terenmin devu (Nanmugan tiruvantadi St.53)- I won't accept anyone
else as God except Him who has Sri Lakshmi always in Him.
This 'Irai Nilai' is also said to connote the Vyuha, Vibhava, Antaryam
and the Archavatara.
II. Meyyam-Uyir-Nilai:- This denotes that the Jivatma or the Individual Self is not independent
of the Paramatma, but dependent on Him for its very existence. The following quatations are worth noting:
1. Uriviyanda innilaimai(Tiruvay 1-3-6)- His nature is above the material existence.
2. Enperuk kan nalattu on porul (1-2-10 )- The more you think of
Him, the more will the bliss of goodness increase; He is very generous to all the selfshining
3. Unarvaip pera urndhu(8-8-3)- Thou tookest me up.
4. Ninra Onrai (8-8-4)- Such a one who dwelt.
5. Uyir vidudaiyan(1-2-1)-The master of the Eternal Home.
Moreover, the expression 'meyyam uyir' signifies the Immortality
of the Individual soul. Further, it also signifies the 'Sarira-Sariri bhava' i.e., the Individual
Soul is only a body to the Universal Soul.
In addition, the expression 'Uyir nilal' signifies
the 'svarupa' for the Jivatma. viz., Servitude
1. Tam-adiyar adiyongal (Tiruvay 3-7-10) Servants of His Servants.
2. Tondan Sadagopan (7-1-11)- Sadagopa, TheServant.
3.Siru mamanisaray ennai andar(8-10-3) -The little great men have become my masters.
This 'uyir nilai' connotes also the Nityas, Muktas, Baddhas, Kaivalyas and Mumukshus.
III. Takka-Neri-The means to attain Salvation is none else than the lotus feet of the Lord i.e.,
Kannanallal illai kandir caran (9-1-9)-
There is no other refuge except Lord Krishna.
'Neri, also includes Karma, Gnana, Bhakti and Acharya bhimana.
IV. Tadaiyagit-tokkiyalum-ulvinaigal or Jivatma Virodhikal:- The obstacles are our sinful deeds and egoism
etc. These obstacles are said to be of five kinds-svarupa-virodhi, paratva-virodhi, purusharatha-virodhi, upaya-virodhi and
Svarupa-Virodhi:- Anti-soul or what is hostile to the soul or soul-nature.
Paratva-Virodhi:- Anti-God or What is hostile to God.
Purushartha-Virodhi:- Anti-goal or what is hostile to the Ultimate Aim.
Upaya-Virodhi:- Anti Means or what is hostile to the true Means.
Prapti -Virodhi:- Anti-gain or what is hostile to one's Ulitmate End or Ideal of Life.
1. Mun ceida mulu vinai(Tiruvay 1-4-2) The consequence of my deeds in former births.
2. Bharamaya palavinai( Amalanadhi St.5) The burden of my past deeds.
3. Poininra Gnanamum polla Olukkum aluk-kudambum (Tiruviruttam, St.1)
Wisdom unsound, character defiled, and my body foul and
4. Ahankara mamakarankal .(1-2-3; 10-7-11) (I -ness and Mine-ness)
V. Val-vinai or Mukti:- This refers to the eternal bliss enjoyed by the Jiva.
1. Nintalinaik-kil valcchi (Tiruvay 3-2-4) live under Thy feet.
2. Valveidhi Gnalam pugala valvar(3-3-11)- They will get eternal life with eternal bliss witnessing the
world sing their praises.
3. Avanadiyar nani-mak-kalavai inbame nalum vakyya nangatke (8-10-7)
May we have always the precious close union of His Servants.
4. Andamil perinbat-tadiyaro-dirundhamai(10-9011) In the company of the happy servants of God.
This 'Purushartha-svarupa' also includes besides the 'Atmanubhavam'
mentioned above, Dharma, Artha, Kama and Bhagavat anubhavam.
According to the Acharya Paramparai, it is said that this stanza
befits the expression, "Sri-daraya namaha". In lines 3 and 4 it can be seen that unlike He, bearing 'Sri' on His chest, She
is bearing Him on Her breast. Further, it is evident from the last four lines of this stanza
that the Universal Mother may delay a bit in the act of mediation; this is done solely with the idea
of testing the intensity of the self surrender made by the chetana. Note for readers:- One may observe that in this
stanza and in the next (20) it is stated that the Lord remained caught in "the eddies of Nappinnai" viz., in her
large and beautiful eyes, her full and delicate breasts, her
red and cherrry lips, and her slender waist.
"Lest the unwary reader fall into any misconception, it may be necessary to state that'
the eddies of Nappinnai' which captivated the Lord and rivetted His attention
were in reality, not of flesh and blood. It is heart-rending how much, Lord Krishna, our perfect Avatar
and God of Love, has been misunderstood and vilified by ignorant foreigners. Of course,
they have not read our books much less, comprehended their meaning. How else is it possible to conceive
that they could find fault with the doings of One, whose unquestionable sanction or otherwise constitutes the sole standard
of right and wrong, Well has it has been said:-
"What pleaseth thee is virtue, the contrary is non-virtue- distingiushing
feature, none other, ever is between the two. The chanting of Thy love-sportings
in Rasa-play, is hence verily deemed most purifying(by the great)